Single-cell RNA-seq enables to exquisitely characterize healthy and diseased tissues. Several studies have performed scRNA-seq of primary HCC tumors. However, in this study, the profiling has been conducted on recurrent lesions. Compared to primary HCCs, the immune landscape in early relapsed tumors was significantly different, with a reduction in Treg and an increase in dendritic cells and CD8 T cells. Interestingly, malignant cells in early relapse presented features of immune evasion, which can affect the unique immune landscape.

(Sun, Yunfan et al. Cell, 21 January 2021)

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