The epidemiological features of hepatocellular carcinoma have changed significantly in the last decades. While for a long-time viral hepatitis and alcohol consumption have been the leading risk factors, the current spread of obesity and type 2 diabetes has contributed to the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide, which has become the leading chronic liver disease as well as one of the main etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in western countries. In this review, we resume the latest data about the epidemiology of metabolic liver disease and HCC arising from NAFLD and discuss the main clinical and molecular features leading to the progression of liver disease and the development of HCC in NAFLD. The emerging concept of metabolic associated fatty liver disease and its association with the development of HCC are also introduced.

(Desjonqueres, E., and Gigante, E., – Hepatoma Research, April 2022)

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